Welcome back to the VCR! This week, many counties experienced rain, bringing their precipitation totals higher, although no county has made it past the ten year average yet.
Brassica Crops – Cutworms have been found in multiple fields across the province. Damage found on the lower leaves of plants with no sign of lepidopteran pests may be the result of early-morning slug feeding. The degree day threshold has been met in most areas in Southern Ontario and if wilted plants are found, dig up the transplant and inspect the roots for cabbage maggot larvae to confirm. With imported cabbageworm and diamondback moth larvae active, thresholds for management can be used to determine if action should be taken. Scout 5 plants in 5 locations and record the total number of each of the lepidopteran pests:
Diamondback moth x 0.2 = A
Imported cabbageworm x 0.5 = B
Cabbage looper x 1.0 = C
A+B+C and divide by 25 = Cabbage Looper Equivalent
For cabbage the threshold is 0.3 and for broccoli and cauliflower the threshold is 0.2.
|Diamondback Moth||Imported Cabbageworm||Cabbage Looper|
|Eggs||-Scale-like eggs laid in small groups||-Yellow, bullet-shaped with ridges||-round, greenish-white|
|Larvae||-hairless||-Green larvae, short hairs, velvet-like appearance||-inchworms with thin white line along each side|
|Damage||-Create windows in leaves, do not consume through leaf||-Ragged holes and dark green frass not in piles||-Ragged holes and dark green frass in piles|
|Relative Damage (Cabbage Looper Equivalent)||0.2||0.5||1.0|
Garlic – Scaping is underway across the province. If scapes are to be consumed, ensure that any herbicide PHIs have been met. When scaping, avoid using sickle bars mowers to cut the scapes, as they often cut leaves that will reduce the yield potential, as well as spread pathogens between plants. Better yields have resulted when the scape is snapped an inch above the youngest leaf. Pulling scapes instead of snapping can cause the upper leaves to lose support and fall over causing pre-mature senesce. Avoid applying any nitrogen past the 5th leaf stage as this has been found to cause ‘rough’ bulbs with cloves forming outside the main bulb wrapper.
Onions – The largest direct seeded onions are reaching the 5th leaf stage in many areas and transplants are really starting to take off. Cutworm damage is sporadic in some fields. Damage due to onion maggot, wireworms and millipedes is being observed. Low levels of thrips are starting to be observed. Past research has shown that Movento 240 SC (group 23) has some residual activity that works better against larvae when it is applied twice earlier in the season. Once the spray threshold has been met, Movento 240 SC could be followed by two applications of Delegate (group 5) or Agri-Mek (group 6). Using a penetrating surfactant can be useful to maximize the effectiveness of products against thrips. Apply no more than two consecutive insecticides from the same IRAC crop as thrips have a relatively short life cycle with multiple generations through the summer months and are at a high risk of developing insecticide resistance.
Peppers – Pepper planting is still ongoing, as Growers got a bit of a late start due to the frost events in May. Also, the recent rain is a big relief for many growers who have not put down irrigation lines. Growers in 2-generation and overlap European corn borer areas should be on the look-out for the pest as the first peak is approaching in Essex and Kent counties and has begun in the London and Sarnia areas. Though the second peak will be more worrisome as the plants will have fruit at that time, there are many control options available for growers in need. Always make sure to read all product labels before any pest control product application.
Tomatoes – Planting is wrapped up for processing tomatoes. Early plantings that survived the frost events in May are approaching first bloom. One issue that is popping up this year is Colorado potato beetle (CPB). Since losing key in-furrow insecticide products two years ago, this is the first time growers are seeing significant damage from the pest in many years. CPB is critical to manage during the transplant phase as the adults and larva (Figure 2) can cause significant defoliation of plants, often leading to plant death. There are a few foliar products that growers can use for CPB control, but you will need multiple applications to control these early populations. Target adults when you start seeing damage, then follow-up with another spray using a product from a different insecticide group 5-7 days later once eggs have begun to hatch (Figure 3). Continue to monitor for CPB and damage as additional applications may be needed. Be sure to read all product labels thoroughly before any pest control product application and follow resistance management strategies. CPB are known to be resistant to group 1 insecticides in Ontario many parts of Ontario.
Pest Degree Day Forecasting
|County||Carrot Rust Fly||Onion Maggot||Carrot Weevil||Aster Leafhopper||Tarnished Plant Bug||Cabbage Maggot||Seedcorn Maggot||European Corn Borer|
|THRESHOLD||329-395, 1399-1711||210-700, 1025-1515||138-156, 455+||128+||40+||314-398, 847-960, 1446-1604||200-350, 600-750, 1000-1150||See legend below|
*NOTE: Data as of June 14th, 2023
*- Bivoltine region for ECB. First Peak Catch: 300-350 DD, Second Peak Catch 1050-1100 DD
**- Overlap region for ECB. First Peak Catch: 300-350 DD Second Peak Catch 650-700 DD, Third Peak Catch 1050-1100 DD
***-Univoltine region for ECB. Peak Catch 650-700 DD
Use these thresholds as a guide, always confirm insect activity with actual field scouting and trap counts.
Select a region below for the latest weather, crop and pest degree day information: