Welcome back to the Vegetable Crop Report! As the first week of July comes to an end, we are beginning to see slow starts to our precipitation averages for most counties.
Brassica Crops – Rapid growth due to heat and excess moisture may lead to nutrient deficiencies, tip burn and hollow stem in broccoli over the next couple of weeks. These abiotic disorders often vary by cultivar in their severity. Alternaria is active and early detection and management of Alternaria will reduce potential inoculum later in the season. Incorporate all left over plant tissue immediately after harvest to lower the amount of inoculum available to infect later plantings. Continue to scout for lepidopteran pests, aphids and thrips. Thresholds for lepidopteran pests using the cabbage looper equivalent can be found here: https://onvegetables.com/2023/06/15/vcr2023-07/
Garlic – Harvest is quickly approaching and some fields are quickly senescing if they are overly stressed. Allow the crop to reach at least 40% yellowing/senesce before harvesting for better yields and increased storability. Symptoms of Fusarium basal rot, Botrytis neck rot and stem and bulb nematode will cause pre-mature senesce (Figure 1). Depending on how quickly your soil dries out, avoid irrigating too close to harvest as soil stuck to the bulb will make it more difficult to achieve a clean wrapper. If black plastic has been used for weed control, cutting it open to allow the soil to dry before harvest can also help with wrapper cleaning. If leek moth counts were high last week, consider targeting the larvae that are now feeding on the crop. If mites or Fusarium were issues in storage last year, refer to this article with information about curing: https://onvegetables.com/2021/12/09/stored-garlic-might-have-mites/
Onions – Stemphylium has been observed in multiple fields across the province. Conditions have been favourable for white rot development. There are no pesticides that are registered to control white rot. The best management strategy is prevention as spores can persist in the soil for at least 40 years. If only a few plants are observed, rogueing out plants in these affected areas (Figure 2). The high humidity, heavy dews and colder mornings means that conditions may have been favourable for onion downy mildew in several areas across the province (Figure 3). The 2017 Muck Vegetable Cultivar Trial & Research Report from the Ontario Crops Research Centre – Bradford summarizes downy mildew product efficacy on page 66: Click here to visit page 66 of the 2017 report. Past research has shown Orondis Ultra (groups 40/49), Zampro (groups 45/40) and Ridomil Gold MZ (groups 4/M3) to be effective for downy mildew management when they are applied as a protective application, before infection. A full list of products registered for downy mildew on dry bulb onion can be found here: Onion x Downy Mildew – Ontario Crop Protection Hub
Tomatoes and Eggplants – Colorado potato beetle continues to be a concern for some growers. Two foliar applications of registered insecticides are recommend 5 days apart to ensure that newly hatched larva are also being targeted. Always read all product labels thoroughly before any pesticide application.
Growers should also be aware that early blight spores have been detected on spore traps across southwestern Ontario. Keeping up on a good general fungicide program should protect most crops, but be on the lookout for key symptoms, like foliar lesions with concentric rings, in your fields (Figure 4).
Pest Degree Day Forecasting
|County||Carrot Rust Fly||Onion Maggot||Carrot Weevil||Aster Leafhopper||Tarnished Plant Bug||Cabbage Maggot||Seedcorn Maggot||European Corn Borer|
|THRESHOLD||329-395, 1399-1711||210-700, 1025-1515||138-156, 455+||128+||40+||314-398, 847-960, 1446-1604||200-350, 600-750, 1000-1150||See legend below|
*- Bivoltine region for ECB. First Peak Catch: 300-350 DD, Second Peak Catch 1050-1100 DD
**- Overlap region for ECB. First Peak Catch: 300-350 DD Second Peak Catch 650-700 DD, Third Peak Catch 1050-1100 DD
***-Univoltine region for ECB. Peak Catch 650-700 DD
Use these thresholds as a guide, always confirm insect activity with actual field scouting and trap counts.
Select a region below for the latest weather, crop and pest degree day information: